This review discusses recent updates in the diagnosis of acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage and emphasizes the necessary elements for proper flow cytometric evaluation of these cases. The current emphasis of the classification system is toward interpreting the marker expression in light of the intensity of lineage markers and avoiding a diagnosis of mixed phenotype acute leukemia based solely on immunophenotyping without considering underlying genetic findings. Novel entities including mixed phenotype acute leukemia with ZNF384 rearrangements and acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage with BCL11B rearrangements seem to show characteristic flow cytometric immunophenotypes discussed here.
Kurzer JH, Weinberg OK. Advances in Flow Cytometry for Mixed Phenotype and Ambiguous Leukemias. Clin Lab Med. 2023 Sep;43(3):399-410. doi: 10.1016/j.cll.2023.04.006. Epub 2023 Jun 9. PMID: 37481319.